Nonfiction 1

Stratification of a tropical forest as seen in dispersal by Ingrid Roth

By Ingrid Roth

Our wisdom of the constitution and dispersal of "Plants, seeds and currents" within the Westindies tropical culmination and seeds is especially constrained as much as the and Azores. Van der Pijl along with his vast be aware of­ modern day, notwithstanding richness of species and diversity ledge of tropical vegetation bargains an outstanding collection of of kinds is overwhelming within the tropical forests. special details at the topic" rules of Morphology of tropical culmination and seeds has consistently dispersal in better crops" (1972, and past pa­ of botanists from many pers). the writer who has earned such a lot benefits in attracted the interest international locations and data could be bought from the sphere of seed and fruit predation, chemical defenses of crops, and animal-plant interactions is books and courses enthusiastic about taxonomy. Ulbrich's "Biologie der Friichte und Samen" Janzen. He and his collaborators have thrown new of tropical culmination and seeds (1928) provides examples mild in this topic. still, a wide unknown and their dispersal tools. the 2 volumes by way of box nonetheless is still sooner than us, specially concerning Van der Roosmalen (1977) facing the de­ an in depth wisdom of fruit and seed dispersal of scription of tropical vegetation have been of extreme worth to tropical plant species. me, because the quarter thought of, Surinam, is with regards to the good chance for my very own stories used to be Venezuelan Guiana and since either areas have the fruit and seed choice of Dr.

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They penetrated, however, the seed coat of Cassia grandis, Enterolobium cyclocarpum, and Hura crepitans. The larvae died in seeds of Pterocarpus rohrii and Swietenia panamens is. These results show that the bruchids can attack some of the seeds of non-host species. But on general terms, hardness and chemistry of the seed coats may be a barrier to the entry by larvae. An interesting study of Janzen and Higgings (1979) draws attention to the fact that absolute protection of seeds from predation may even be disadvantageous for the plant.

Consequently, the quantitative defense substances are often present in high concentrations, up to 60% dry weight in the case of tannins. Qualitative agents of defense such as cardenolides, glucosinolates, alkaloids, cyanogenic compounds and the like occur in low concentrations «2% dry weight), but render little protection from specialized herbivores, even in high concentrations. Secondary compounds in high concentrations which contain N may exercise a dual defensive and nitrogen-storage effect, particularly when occurring in seeds.

1976). Some seeds have improved germination after passage through a vertebrate gut, either of birds or of mammals. Janzen (1971 b) suggests that these seeds have probably a retarded germination, if they do not pass through a vertebrate gut. Seeds ingested by mammalia have often a chemical or mechanical protection developed. Janzen mentions a great variety of them (see chapter on Predation). A certain zonation concerning formation of fleshy fruits and the zones of mammalian activity may be distinguished in the forest.

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