By Zellig S. Harris
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It appears to be less frequent with the preterit (hubo, hubieron) and, especially, the present tense (hay, hayn), for which DeMello (1991: 460) only documents the non-agreeing forms. For preterit hubieron, research in Venezuela suggests that its less frequent use may be due to social stigma (Freites-Barros 2003, 2004; Malaver 1999). The agreeing present tense, which is usually transcribed as hayn, haen, or hain, is also stigmatized. Still, these forms have been documented in Antillean (Holmquist 2008: 28; Vaquero 1996: 64), Antioquian Colombian (Montes-Giraldo 1982: 384), Argentinean (Kany 1951: 256–257), and Venezuelan Spanish (Lapesa 1981: §133; Navarro-Correa 1992: 98).
3). Therefore, he calls for investigations that “address this issue by observing the interaction between the pluralization of haber and factors such as speech style, social class, sex, and age” (Díaz-Campos 2003: 11). Tab. 2: Linguistic predictors considered by Díaz-Campos (2003) Predictors Examples Reference of the noun phrase Human Habían profesores. ’ Nonhuman No había edificios. ’ Reinforcement of the idea of plurality Not reinforced Habían profesores. ’ Reinforced by an adjective Habían buenos proyectos.
2: Linguistic predictors considered by Díaz-Campos (2003) Predictors Examples Reference of the noun phrase Human Habían profesores. ’ Nonhuman No había edificios. ’ Reinforcement of the idea of plurality Not reinforced Habían profesores. ’ Reinforced by an adjective Habían buenos proyectos. ’ Reinforced by coordination of nouns Habían hornos de cal, alfarería y cuestiones. ’ Reinforced by a determiner Habían otros grupos. ’ Reinforced by a determiner and an Habían unos árboles grandes. ’ Verb tense Source: Examples taken from Díaz-Campos (2003: 5–6) D’Aquino-Ruiz (2004) studies a larger sample from the same corpus as Díaz-Campos (2003)7.