By Andrzej Piotr Wierzbicki
The e-book expresses the conviction that the paintings of making instruments – Greek techne – changes its charactertogether with the switch of civilization epochs and co-determines such adjustments. this doesn't suggest that instruments commonplace for a civilization epoch be sure it thoroughly, yet they modify our manner of perceiving and examining the realm. There could have been many such epochs within the historical past of human civilization (much greater than the three waves of agricultural, business and data civilization). this is often expressed by way of the identify Technenof the booklet, the place n denotes a next civilization epoch.
During final fifty years we saw a decomposition of the outdated episteme (understood as a fashion of making and studying wisdom attribute for a given civilization epoch) of modernism, which used to be an episteme common for business civilization. this day, the area is in a different way understood by means of the representatives of 3 varied cultural spheres: of strict and usual sciences; of human and social sciences (especially by means of their half vulnerable in the direction of postmodernism) and technical sciences that experience a distinct episteme than even that of strict and ordinary sciences. therefore, we realize at the present time no longer two cultures, but three diversified episteme.
The e-book includes 4 components. First comprises simple epistemological observations, moment is dedicated to chose components of contemporary historical past of data applied sciences, 3rd comprises extra precise epistemological and normal discussions, fourth specifies conclusions. The e-book is written from the cognitive standpoint of technical sciences, with a whole information – and dialogue – of its alterations from the cognitive point of view of strict sciences or human and social sciences. the most thesis of the publication is that informational revolution will most likely result in a formation of a brand new episteme.
The publication contains discussions of many matters concerning such basic standpoint, equivalent to what is know-how right; what's instinct from a standpoint of know-how and of evolutionary naturalism; what are the explanations for and the way huge are the delays betweena primary invention and its vast social usage; what is the basic logical error (using paradoxes that aren't actual, purely obvious) of the culture of sceptical philosophy; what are rational foundationsand examples of emergence of order out of chaos; even if civilization improvement based on optimistic feedbacks among technological know-how, expertise and the marketplace might lead unavoidably to a self-destruction of human civilization; etc.
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Extra resources for Technen: Elements of Recent History of Information Technologies with Epistemological Conclusions
The phenomenon of science wars is a clear example of controversies between different epistemai of these different cultural spheres. On this background, it is useful to stress the difference between multidisciplinary and an interdisciplinary approach, terms that are popular but often used imprecisely. Multidisciplinary approach is one encompassing the knowledge of several disciplines, interdisciplinary approach is a holistic approach which should, nevertheless, take into account the differences in episteme of the three cultural spheres discussed above, including results of social sciences and humanities, but also strict and natural sciences as well as technical sciences, and the concept of technology proper discussed in more detail in the next chapter.
In: Stehr, N. ) Knowledge Societies, pp. 222–260. : The Concept of Truth in Languages of Deductive Sciences. In: Tarski, A. ) Logic, Semantics, Metamathematics. : The Third Wave. : Education for a new cultural era of informed reason. G. ) Windows of Creativity and Inventions. Lomond, Mt. : Finansowanie nauki w krajach rozwinie˛tych na progu gospodarki opartej na wiedzy a sytuacja nauki w Polsce (Financing of Science in Developed Countries on the Verge of Knowledge Based Economy and the Situation of Science in Poland).
G. Latour (1987), write even about technoscience, which is, however, a great mistake, a sign of a deep misunderstanding of technology: strict sciences and technology have many common features, but differ essentially in their values and episteme. These differences will be discussed in detail later, but their essence should be indicated here: the ideals of strict sciences are true theories, the ideals of 40 3 What is ‘‘Technology’’? technology are the art of constructing tools and solving practical problems even in cases when corresponding theories do not yet exist.