By Chris Waltho, John Coulson
A universal sight round the extra northerly beaches of the British Isles, the typical Eider is the biggest duck within the northern hemisphere. The eider is especially good tailored to cold-water environments; the insulating houses of eider down are iconic. The species is taxonomically attention-grabbing, with various well-marked subspecies reflecting the styles of ice insurance in the course of old glaciations, and those geese have additionally supplied the focal point for a few very important behavioural stories, specially on feeding ecology and effort budgets.
Eiders have a protracted organization with people, and feature deep cultural value in lots of societies. despite the fact that, glossy life are exposing those geese to a variety of new pressures.
This monograph offers a entire portrait of the typical Eider; authors Chris Waltho and John Coulson assemble an intensive and numerous overseas literature, with sections on taxonomy, habitats, breeding biology, inhabitants dynamics, nutrition and foraging, dispersal and migration, and conservation.
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Extra info for The Common Eider
1. The distribution of diﬀerent subspecies of Common Eider. 1 = S. m. borealis; 2 = S. m. dresseri; 3 = S. m. faeroeensis; 4 = S. m. mollissima; 5 = S. m. sedentaria; 6 = S. m. v-nigrum. Revised from Sonsthagen et al. (2011). indd 59 07/11/2014 12:25 Process Black The Common Eider Breeding distribution The Common Eider is widely distributed around the mid- to high-latitude coasts of the northern hemisphere, particularly at the higher latitudes. It has a Holarctic distribution, being present in both Eurasia and North America.
D. 9. d. = no data). Derived from data in Schøler (1907, 1914), Portenko (1972), Mendall (1986). 10. Mean length of three bill measures in adult males from each subspecies. (Derived from data in Mendall 1986, Palmer 1976. 01). This shows that across the subspecies, S. m. sedentaria and S. m. dresseri are large-billed, S. m. borealis and S. m. faeroeensis are small-billed, while S. m. mollissima and S. m. v-nigrum are intermediate. indd 51 07/11/2014 12:25 Process Black The Common Eider In the culmen, the smallest diﬀerence between the male and female is found in S.
2002) measured radar tracks of male eiders on moult migration in Arctic Canada and found them to be ﬂying between a minimum of 16m/s (57kph) and a maximum of 22m/s (79kph) in winds of 6–8m/s. 5 beats per second (Hz). At this rate, each wing stroke would propel the eider forwards about 3 metres. 15. The relationship between means (± SD) for wing area and body mass in the pre-laying period. The upper data point relates to females and the lower to males (data from Guillemette & Ouellet (2005). This illustrates that the females are structurally smaller, but around 25% heavier at this time of the year.