Engineering

The Designer's Guide to Spice and Spectre by Ken Kundert

By Ken Kundert

The Designer's consultant to SPICE and Spectre® is an in-depth consultant to circuit simulators from a designer's standpoint: the pitfalls of circuit simulation, equivalent to convergence and accuracy difficulties, are defined in phrases a circuit fashion designer is cozy with. The publication provides designers perception into why those difficulties take place and the way to prevent them. It additionally presents useful recommendation on find out how to make many tough measurements with a circuit simulator, corresponding to loop achieve of an op-amp or distortion measurements of such clocked circuits as d-to-a converters and sample-and-hold circuits. ultimately, feedback are given approximately the best way to deal with tough sessions of circuits, equivalent to oscillators, charge-storage or very huge circuits. After examining The Designer's consultant to SPICE and Spectre®, you'll spend much less time struggling with your simulator and extra time exploring, figuring out and designing your circuits.
Audience: Written for working towards analog and mixed-signal circuit designers who're already accustomed to the fundamentals of working SPICE. worthy for someone who makes use of a circuit simulator, regardless of which, considering the point of interest is at the primary features and behaviour of circuit simulators in most cases.

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From below Approx. from above Closeness 32 32 37 28 44 49 42 56 properties of an ontology have an impact on the relation between the different measures used to compute the ontology’s pairwise similarities, we found no indicators. , perfect, high, medium and low correlations) for the SG relation. For each category, we studied the following properties of the ontologies in that category: expressivity, number of logical axioms, number of concepts, number of roles, length of the longest axiom, number of subconcepts.

Although unsupervised aproaches can process very large amounts of data, the resulting relations are hard to map to ontologies. In addition, it has been documented that these approaches often produce uninformative as well as incoherent extractions [11]. Semi-supervised methods only require a small number of seed instances. The handcrafted seeds are used to extract patterns from a large corpus, which are then used to extract more instances and those again to extract new patterns in an iterative way.

And, they mostly underestimated the similarity whereas the Rada measure was mostly overestimating the human similarity. Experiment 2 Cost of the new measures. One of the main issues we want to explore in this study is the cost (in terms of time) for similarity measurement in general and the cost of the most expensive similarity measure in particular. 9 seconds) and the maximum time was 93 minutes for the Neglected Tropical Disease Ontology which is a SRIQ ontology with 1237 logical axioms, 252 concepts and 99 roles.

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