Animals

The Evolutionary Biology of Flies by David Yeates, Brian Wiegmann

By David Yeates, Brian Wiegmann

Flies ( Dipteria) have had a huge position in deepening scientists'understanding of recent biology and evolution. The research of flies has figured prominently in significant advances within the fields of molecular evolution, body structure, genetics, phylogenetics, and ecology during the last century.

This quantity, with contributions from most sensible scientists and students within the box, brings jointly various elements of analysis and may be crucial examining for entomologists and fly researchers.

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The affinities of this group remain obscure, with some authors placing them inside or near Therevidae (Sinclair et al. 1994; Yeates 1994). The paraphyly of Apioceridae was suspected based on the male genitalia (Sinclair et al. 1994), and subsequently, the subfamily Megascelinae was transferred to Mydidae (Yeates and Irwin 1996). Irwin and Wiegmann (2001) used morphology and 28S RNA to confirm the placement of the Rhaphiomidinae and Megascelinae in the Mydidae rather than in the Apioceridae, in agreement with the findings of Yeates and Irwin (1996).

1995) flies in a phylogenetic context. Adult VNC architecture shows a high degree of conservatism, with a general trend toward fusion of segmental ganglia through dipteran evolution. The fusion of all ganglia into a synganglion, as is found in Drosophila, has evolved independently three or four times. Larval and adult VNC architecture rarely match and it is likely that they are decoupled in ontogeny. A parsimony analysis of 32 neuroanatomical characters of the fly visual system from representatives of 23 families produced results that were in general agreement with the accepted phylogenetic framework (Buschbeck 2000).

33:421–444. Collins, K. , and B. M. Wiegmann. 2002b. Phylogenetic relationships of the Lower Cyclorrhapha (Diptera: Brachycera) based on 28S rDNA sequences. Insect Syst. Evol. 33:445–456. , and A. Pont. 2000. Cladistic analysis of Coenosiini (Diptera : Muscidae :Coenosiinae). Sys. Entomol. 25:373–392. Courtney, G. 1990a. Cuticular morphology of larval mountain midges (Diptera: Deuterophlebiidae): Implications for the phylogenetic relationships of Nematocera. Can. J. Zool. 68:556–578. Courtney, G.

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