By Colin P. Masica
In his bold survey of the Indo-Aryan languages, Masica has supplied a basic, comparative advent that might curiosity not just basic and theoretical linguists but additionally scholars of 1 or extra languages (Hindi, Urdu, Bengali, Punjabi, Gujurati, Marathi, Sinhalese, etc.) who are looking to acquaint themselves with the wider linguistic context. in most cases synchronic in strategy, focusing on the phonology, morphology and syntax of the trendy representatives of the gang, the amount additionally covers their ancient improvement, writing structures, and elements of sociolinguistics.
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Additional resources for The Indo-Aryan Languages (Cambridge Language Surveys)
Despite identification of the Mitanni rulers as (Proto)-Indo-Aryans, there is thus no necessity and no basis for seeing in the Mitanni evidence any indication either of the route taken by the main Indo Aryan group or of any back-migration of Indo-Aryans from the Punjab. Burrow's hypothesis (J RAS 1973: 123-40) has been given in some detail because it seems best to satisfy the requirements of the varied kinds of evidence that must be taken into account: the archaeological evidence, the relationship between the Avestan and Vedic languages and religion, the distribution of Iranian peoples at a later period, the Assyrian and Hittite records, the existence of the NU,tistani languages, and toponymic evidence.
In the broken hill country to the north of the Salt range are the more diverse dialects of "Northern Lahnda", Grierson's pioneering subclassification of which most experts agree is particularly unsatisfactory. The least problematic may be Pothohari (L SI Pothwari), the dialect of Rawalpindi and Ihelum Districts (and thus of the southeastern hinterland of the new Pakistani capital of Islamabad). To the west and north of this, that is primarily in Attock and Hazara Districts, and across the Indus in Kohat and Peshawar, both the dialectal and the terminolo gical picture is much more confusing, with discontinuous dialects (due to mig ration and invasion) , dialects with no settled name, and identical names applied to several different dialects.
Many complex social and political forces, which we cannot go into here, have conspired to pull the two "styles" ever further apart. Their identity as separate languages may now be regarded as a cultural fact, however -anomalous linguistically. g. Ruthenian/Little Russian/Ukrainian) , these have now been largely sorted out. Linguistic nomenclature in the Indo-Aryan field, on the other hand , still constitutes a boulder-strewn path over which one must pick one's way , carefully. Nomenclature complicates the Hindi-Urdu situation, as we have seen .