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Extra resources for The Origin of Higher Clades
First of all, it is important to note that although the majority (73) of these 80 terminal taxa concern extant groups, some of them (7) concern fossils; roughly, it can be said that for every 10 extant terminal taxa included in the analysis, one fossil terminal taxon was included. The main reason for using more extant taxa is that, as mentioned above, a great number of the phylogenetic characters used in the analysis refer to the configuration of muscles, cartilage and ligaments. Thus, the seven fossil taxa that were used, † Chanoides macropoma, † Clupavus maroccanus, † Santanichthys diasii, †Lusitanichthys characiformis, †Sorbininardus apuliensis, †Tiktaalik roseae and †Acanthostega gunnari, were chosen for a precise reason.
Conger conger: MNCN 1530, 5 (alc). Eurypharynx pelecanoides: AMNH 44315, 1 (alc); AMNH 44344, 1 (alc). Megalops cyprinoides: MNCN 48858, 3 (alc). Notacanthus bonaparte: MNCN 107324, 3 (alc). Osteoglossomorphs: Hiodon tergisus: MNCN 36019, 3 (alc). Mormyrus niloticus: LFEM, 1 (alc). Mormyrus tapirus: MNCN 80593, 3 (alc); MNCN 85283, 1 (alc). Pantodon buchholzi: MNCN 73493, 4 (alc). Xenomystus nigri: MNCN 227824, 25 (alc). Clupeomorphs: Denticeps clupeoides: MRAC 76-032-P-1, 2 (alc). Engraulis encrasicolus: MNCN 68048, 2 (alc); MNCN 65097, 8 (alc); MNCN 1099, 3 (alc).
2. ’ respectively (for more details, see text). (Characters 121 to 240) ! ) " Contd. Table 1 Data matrix of the 356 characters included in the cladistic analysis. 2. ’ respectively (for more details, see text). ) $ % SARCOPTERYGII ACTINISTIA DIPNOI TIKTAALIK ROSEAE ACANTHOSTEGA GUNNARI ACTINOPTERYGII AMPHIBIA AMNIOTA TETRAPODA CLADISTIA CHONDROSTEI GINGLYMODI HALECOMORPHI ELOPIFORMES ALBULIFORMES NOTACANTHIFORMES ELOPOMORPHA ANGUILLIFORMES ACTINOPTERI SACCOPHARYNGIFORMES NEOPTERYGII HIODONTIFORMES OSTEOGLOSSOMORPHA OSTEOGLOSSIFORMES ALEPOCEPHALOIDEA ARGENTINIFORMES ARGENTINOIDEA HALECOSTOMI ESOCIFORMES GALAXIOIDEA OSMERIFORMES OSMEROIDEA SALMO TELEOSTEI COREGONUS SALMONIFORMES THYMALLUS AULOPIFORMES NEOTELEOSTEI STOMIIFORMES CLUPEOMORPHA CLUPEOCEPHALA GONORYNCHIFORMES SORBININARDUS APULIENSIS CLUPAVUS MAROCCANUS EUTELEOSTEI SANTANICHTHYS DIASII OTOCEPHALA CHANOIDES MACROPOMA LUSITANICHTHYS CHARACIFORMIS OSTARIOPHYSI EXTANT OTOPHYSI CYPRINIFORMES CHARACIFORMES GYMNOTIFORMES SILURIFORMES Figure 4 Relationships among the major osteichthyan groups examined, derived from the “majority fools” tree obtained in the cladistic analysis of Chapter 3 (see Fig.